Skip site news

Site news

Picture of zrdc elearning
Residential Evaluation of E-Learning & Digital Culture Course
by zrdc elearning - Wednesday, 22 April 2015, 3:38 PM
 

Hello Everyone,

Greetings and hope you travelved well back home.

Like I mentioned during E-Learning & Digital Culture Class at the residentials, I have prepered an Evaluation Survey for this course.

To complet the survey please Click Here or copy and past this Link: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/GML2L3C

This survey intends to find out what you were able to learn in this course during the just ended residential program.

Read the rest of this topic(105 words)...
 
Picture of zrdc elearning
How to Add Resources to your Moodle Course
by zrdc elearning - Monday, 13 April 2015, 4:05 PM
 

Hello Everyone,

I hope everyone has recived their login detail to our Elearning Moodle course and that you have atleast logined in to check out our great plat form.

To help you start working in your moodle course please find the following links on how you can go about Adding Resources to the courses you have created.

Read the rest of this topic(113 words)...
 
Picture of zrdc elearning
E-Learning 2015
by zrdc elearning - Monday, 6 April 2015, 10:00 PM
 

Hello Everyone,

Welcome to the 2015 residential program.

During the 10 days of this residential we will cover major topics of our elearning course and this will include:

  1. The objectives and tasks of this course
  2. How to login to to the ZRDC elearning Moodle Platform
  3. How to create a course in Moodle
  4. How to add contents to your Moodle course
  5. How to create and track assaignments, tests and exercises
  6. How to create a grade book for your course
  7. How to enroll students and manage their activities in Moodle.
Read the rest of this topic(109 words)...
 
Picture of zrdc elearning
Creating a Course in Moodle
by zrdc elearning - Monday, 6 April 2015, 9:58 PM
 

Thanks to every one who participated in today's Live meeting covering the Topic:Introduction to Creating Course in Moodle: Lesson One.

Special thaks goes to : Mr. Augustine Banda whose participation and Contributions was excelent and Mr. Kay Muyatwa who managed to join the meeting despite conectivity challenges.

Look for the next meeting comming soon!

Watch this video and learn How to Creat a Course in Moodle today!

 
Picture of zrdc elearning
Introcuction to Course Designing in Moodle
by zrdc elearning - Friday, 21 March 2014, 2:25 AM
 
Picture of zrdc elearning
Introduction to Course Design in Moodle : Lesson One
by zrdc elearning - Wednesday, 12 March 2014, 1:24 AM
 

Join Online Meeting Today:

TOPIC: Introduction to Course Design in Moodle : Lesson One

DATE: 12/03/2014

TIME: 10:00 - 12:00 (+2 GMT)

During this session I will be covering the following topics:

  • What is Moodle and what can we do with it - 10 Minut
  • Using Moodle for the first time -                    10 Minutes
  • Creating Your First Course using Moodle -     30 Minutes
  • Adding Contents to Your Moodle Course -      30 Minutes
  • Questions & Answers -                                 40 Minutes

To get to the meeting platform please CLICK HERE!

Read the rest of this topic(84 words)...
 

Skip available courses

Available courses

  • Biology is a science subject that teaches about plants, animals and human anatomy . Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification and taxonomy.[1] Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of many branches and subdisciplines. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain general and unifying concepts within it that govern all study and research, consolidating it into single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the synthesis and creation of new species. It is also understood today that all the organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable and vital condition known as homeostasis

    Self enrolment: GRADE 10 BIOLOGY
  • Civic Education is a study of Politics, human rights, Law, constitution, and civic organization and not forgetting Gender.
    Self enrolment: GRADE TEN CIVIC EDUCATION
  • BECOME AN AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING

    Self enrolment: AEROMECHANICAL
  • THIS COURSE IS AIMED AT TEACHERS CARE GIVERS EDUCATIONILIST WHO ARE INVOLVED IN THE PROVISION EARLY EDUCATION TO CHILDREN FROM THE AGES 1-6. IT AIMS AT DEVELOPING THE CHILD HOLISTICALLY IN PHYSICAL SOCIAL EMOTIONAL AND MENTAL DEVELOPMENT.
    Self enrolment: EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND DEVELLOPMENT
  • Looking at living and non living organism.

    Self enrolment: BIOLOGY 5090 GRADE 10
  • Art and design is the study of drawings, paintings,sculpture ceramics weaving etc.
    Self enrolment: ART AND DESIGN
  • Integrated science is the subject that teaches about plants, animals and humans
    Self enrolment: Integrated Science
  • LEARNING ABOUT HUMAN BEINGS

    Self enrolment: BIOLOGY
  • development and provision of quality ece education
    Self enrolment: EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
  • This course is meant to prepare ECE students to be able to manage the ECE Centres effectively.

    Students will be expected to:

    1. Employ organisational skills in order to come up with structures of Early Childhood Education Centres
    2. Apply Organisation and Management skills in order to effectively handle learners in the classroom
    3. Involve community participation in the operations of early childhood education centres.
    4. Partner with other relevant professionals in managing early childhood education  centres
    Self enrolment: ECE EDUCATIONAL AND MANAGEMENT COURSE
  • This course fosters environmental conservation, farming, gender equality, communication and transport.

    Self enrolment: GRADE 4 SOCIAL AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
  • High way to higher Marks in Intergrated Science

    Self enrolment: INTEGRATED SCIENCE GRADE 8
  • In course students will learn the human body, ventillation,substance abuse, diseases and the environment

    Self enrolment: Grade 5 integrated science term one
  • Physical education has been an important part of peoples' lives throughout the ages.People have been and will continue doing physical education in one way or the another, formally or informally, through the various physical activities that may engage in survival, pleasure or physical exercise.

    Self enrolment: PHYSICAL EDUCATION GRADE 9 TERM 1
  • 1.  Fig. 1 shows sketches of three tools used in the workshop.

     

    Fig. 1

     

    (a)  Identify each tool shown in Fig. 1 and state its purpose.                                            

     

    Tool A           Pin Punch / Pin Puncher                                                               [1]

    Purpose        For driving in pins/small nails into materials                                 [1]

    Tool B          Tap                                                                                                [1]

    Purpose        For making female threads                                                            [1]

    Tool C           Rivet Set                                                                                       [1]

    Purpose        To form (set) the rivet head                                                            [1]

     

          (b) Explain:

     

    (i)            why tool A has a knurled body;

     

     For grip                                                                                                                   [2]

     

    (ii)          why tool B has a square top;

     

    To secure (hold) the top into the tap wrench (holder)                                                   [2]

     

              (iii)       why tool C has two differing holes at its end.                                                  

                       

          To accommodate different sizes of rivet heads                                 [2]                            

     

     

    (b)  For one of the tools shown in Fig. 1, sketch another tool that would be used with it

    and explain how they work together.                                                                        

     

     

     

                                                                                          [5]

    Tool A and Tool C – Striking gently until work is done/accomplished.             

     

    Tool B – Turning clockwise when threading and anti-clockwise when breaking swarf.  

    ***NB : It is not necessary to show drawings of the pin punch, tap or rivet set in the illustrations. Candidate may just show a tool that would be used with Tool A or Tool B or Tool C.  Tool illustration may be in full or a section of the tool which must be named.*************

     

    Self enrolment: Design and Technology  : How to answer questions on Materials and Processes
  • This subject mainly deals with the behaviour of metals and their properties.

    Self enrolment: METALWORK GRADE 10
  • CONNECTING CLASSROOM CONCEPT LINKING SCHOOL

    Self enrolment: 21ST CENTUARY SKILLS - 2015
  • Project work
    Self enrolment: ART AND DESIGN
  • An approach to excellence in Organisational and Professional Ethics Standards

    Self enrolment: Adult Education
  • An approach to excellence in Organisational and Professional Ethics Standards

    Self enrolment: DAdult Education
  • An approach to excellence in Organisational and Professional Ethics Standards

    Self enrolment: Adult Education
  • Welcome to this course. This course is about plastics.

    As you might be aware, there are different types of resistant materials. Plastics are some of the resistant materials that have emmerged on the world market at a fast rate and are used in our daily lives. Automobiles, industrial constructions, domestic equipment and many other innovations use plastic. Plastics are made from different sources such as crude oil, fossils, plants and insects. There are different types of plastics that are available on the market. Plastics have different uses and properties.

    I hope you will find this course exciting and enjoyable.

    Self enrolment: Resistant Materials - Plastics
  • The course will adresse composition, structures and cloze. The course will be able to explain how to takle compositions, rewrites and clozes. Enjoy!

    Self enrolment: ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR G10 TO G12
  • In ths course you will learn about all need to know about English course in Grade 10. Join this course today and become an A+ student in English for grade 10.

    Self enrolment: Englishi Revision For Grade 10
  • The course is adreses composition, structures and cloze. The course will be able to explain how to takle compositions, rewrites and clozes. Enjoy!

    Self enrolment: ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR G10 TO G12
  • This course details the technicalities required for one to write a general composition at grade nine level.

    Self enrolment: ENGLISH COMPOSITION G9
  • This coarse covers the following: Speech Work, comprehension composition and structure
    Self enrolment: English Grade 7 Term 1
  • This is an English course that introduces grade10 pupils tobasic writting of simple stories like narratives, descriptives, formal letters and profile writting.

    Self enrolment: English Grade 10 Term one
  • In this course you will learn about the main classes of words

    Self enrolment: English Grade 10 term three
  • Arrangement of words in a sentence

    Self enrolment: Syntax
  • This course includes 

    Self enrolment: GRADE TWELVE BIOLOGY TERM TWO
  • We look at the bible of chemistry, the periodic table of elements. No well meaning scientist can run away from this precoius book. ENJOY!

    Self enrolment: CHEMISTRY 11
  • Chemistry is all around us. The clothes you wear, the air we breath, the nutrients in the food you eat.........

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
  • This Course will lead you through the great experiences of the Principles and Mechanisms of General Physics. The course will give you great insight about the Earth and the Forces around it that make Life a Reality.

    Self enrolment: GRADE 10 PHYSICS TERM THREE COURSE
  • PSBAT

    draw and label parts of a flowering plant.

    understand heat, electricity and matter.

     

    Self enrolment: GRADE5 INTEGRATED SCIENCE -TERM 3
  • This lesson provides a brief introduction to planetary physics.
    Self enrolment: introduction to physics
  • This course deals with direct and inverse variation.

    Self enrolment: Grade 11 Variation
  • This Course is about Algebra Expressions  for Grade 10 Learners in Secondary Schools as a Foundation Course at an Early Stage of Senior Mathematics. There are  10 Topics each comprising of  Lesson Content, Exercises, Video instruction, Assignments and end of Course Test.

    Self enrolment:  ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS
  • In this topic learners will learn all the topics for grade 10 syllabus D.

    Self enrolment: MATHEMATICS GRADE 10
  • This course covers the basics of calculus ranging from limits of a function  to the derivative of a trigonometric function. An assessment is given every after a topic to evaluate the understanding of the learners .

    Self enrolment: introduction to calculus
  • ADMA

    Pure and Applied mathematics adds an advantage to learners,who take syllabus D Mathematics because there will have a broader understanding of Mathematics .

    Self enrolment: Addinational Mathematics For Grade 12
  • This course comprise four (4) topics taught in 20 lessons. The topics include square roots and cube roots, integers, angles and ratio and proportion. By the end of the course learner should be able to solve problems that involve ratio and proportion, find angles associated with straight lines, describe and find roots of Squares and Cubes and, add and subtract, and multiply and divide integers without using the number line.
    Self enrolment: Mathematics Grade 9 Term 1
  • this term, as grade 11 pupils, we shall discuss the following topics in mathematics.

    term 1:

    1. Basic process of algebra

    2. Trigonomentry

    3. computer studies

    4. end of term 1 test

    term 2:

    1. Quadratic equations

    2. Quadratic functions

    3. Probability

    4. end of term 2 test

    term 3

    1. Matrices

    2. Progressions

    3. Variation

    4. end of term 3 test

    Self enrolment: GRADE 11 MATHEMATICS term 1-3
  • Probability is one of those ideas about which we all have some notion, but it may not be a very definite one. Initially, we will not spend our time trying to get an exact definition, but will confine ourselves to the task of grasping the idea generally and seeing how it can be used.

    Other words which convey much the same idea as probability are "chance" and "likelihood".

    Just as there is a scale of temperature, because some things are hotter than others, so there is a scale of probability. Some things are more probable than others – for example, snow is more likely to fall in winter than in summer, or a healthy person has more chance of surviving an attack of influenza than an unhealthy person. There is, you will note, some uncertainty in these matters. Most things in real life are uncertain to some degree or other, and it is for this reason that the theory of probability is of great practical value. It is the branch of mathematics which deals specifically with matters of uncertainty.

    For the purpose of learning the theory, it is necessary to start with simple things like coin tossing and die-throwing. This may seem a bit remote from business and industrial life, but it will help you understand the more practical applications. We shall then move on to consider the application of probability to real situations.

    Self enrolment: GRADE 12 MATHEMATICS TERM 1
  • LESSON ONE

    PARTS OF THE EARTH

    Self enrolment: GRADE 12 MATHEMATICS
  • Wood work is a couse  of study which seeks understand wood technology in terms of its growth and how useful it can be to human habitational needs once processed.

    Self enrolment: WOOD WORK G 10
  • WOOD WORK GRADE 10 TERM 1

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Self enrolment: WOOD WORK GRADE 10 TERM 1
  • IN THIS COURSE I WILL EXPLAIN PROPERTIES AND CHARECTERISTICS OF MATERIALS AND SHOW KNOWLEDGE  AND WORKING WITH MATERIAS USING HAND TOOLS.

    Self enrolment: DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY
  • The course is a component of design and technology and will help you effectively grasp material technology in structure development, wood is one of the most commomnly used materials, and its effective manipulation will produce magnificent works of art.

    Self enrolment: WOODWORK GRADE 9-TERM 1
  • IN THIS COURSE LEARNERS WILL BE ABLE TO LEARN ABOUT WOOD AND ITS PRODUCTS, SAFE USE AND CARE OF HAND AND POWER TOOLS, NON-WOOD MATERIALS.

    Self enrolment: WOODWORK GRADE 8 TERM 1
  • WOODWORK DEALS WITH  TIMBER PRODUCTS IN ENGINEERING.

    Self enrolment: woodwork
  • woodwork deals with timber products in engineering.

    Self enrolment: WOODWORK GRADE 10 TERM ONE
  • Geometrical and mechanical drawing is language used in industry to communicate ideas graghically

    Self enrolment: GEOMETRICAL AND MECHANICAL DRAWING
  • This category of lessons will tackle the change of behaviour for students who will be introduced to the workshop for the first time. The detail will focus on maintaining the skills to upkeep the continuity of mankind in comformity with the art of working with tools and machines

    Self enrolment: WOODWORK GRADE TEN TERM ONE
  • This course give learners an incite to the world of construction.

    Self enrolment: Grade 10 WoodWork
  • Metal work for Grade 10 in schools have become important in this industrial environment of zambia  to produce products for the service of mankind. The knowledge of Metal work is highly essential for pupils, engineers and technocrats for familiarizing themselves with modern concepts of manufacturing technologies.
    Self enrolment: Metal Work Grade 10
  • THIS IS TO INTRODUCE THE LEARNERS TO METHODES OF FILLING

    Self enrolment: Grade 10 METALWORK TRM 1
  • civic education helps learners know their rights

    Self enrolment: CIVIC EDUCATION
  • This course is intended to introduce learners to Civic Education. Learners will learn what Civic Education is and its importance.
    Self enrolment: CIVIC EDUCATION GRADE10 -12
  • itroduction to civic education
    Self enrolment: Civic Education grade 10
  • This course will enable learners acquire knowledge and skills in commercial services and trade

    Self enrolment: Grade 10 Commerce
  • this course will enable learners acquire business knowledge and skills and use them in their every day life
    Self enrolment: Business Studies Department
  • THIS COURSE IS ABOUT BUYING AND SELLING ON LINE GOODS AND SERVICES.

    Self enrolment: Electronic Commerce
  • The syllabus is intended to develop the pupils' awareness of the industrial and commercial community in which they live. It provides a study of the structure of the world of commerce with the main emphasis on the commercial activities in the Zambians home trade. It provides a foundation for a career in the field of business and it also provides a basis for further studies in related disciplines. The syllabus also introduces pupils to the various basic concepts necessary to be selfreliant in their own day-to-day personal transactions and in running a business.
    Self enrolment: COMMERCE GRADE 10 TERM 2
  • In this course you are going to learn about three parts of the account that is (1) introduction to double entry bookkeeping system (2) the financial statement of the sole traders and (3) books of prime entry

    Self enrolment: Accounts for grade ten term one
  • INTRODUCTION TO COMMERCE HAS TOPICS SUCH AS ADVRTISING AND TRASPORT.

    Guest access: COMMERCE GRADE 10Self enrolment: COMMERCE GRADE 10
  • AIDS TO TRADE AND INDUSTRY AS THE KEY ECONOMIC DRIVERS

    Self enrolment: COMMERCE G10 TERM1
  • this course is about pupils to have skill in computers

    Self enrolment: computer studies grade 10 term 1
  • This course will help equip learners with basic computer skills that renders them productive with computers and use.

    Self enrolment: Computer Studies
  • enables learners to make use of their skills in this world of commerce.
    Self enrolment: Enterpreneurship Course for Grade 10
  • In this course you will learn how to set SMART goal
    Self enrolment: Entreprenuership Course for Grade Ten (10) Term 1
  • Enterprenuership is critical for Human survival. This course seeks to set you on a path to success as you graduate from High School 

    Self enrolment: Entrepreneurship Course for Grade 12
  • In this course you will learn how to set SMART Goals and how to design SWOT Analysis for your new business.

    Self enrolment: Entrepreneurship Course for Grade 10
  • Commerce is the study of Trade and its Aids to trade. Commerce is a branch of business. It is concerned with the exchange of goods and services. It includes all those activities, which directly or indirectly facilitate that exchange

    Guest access: COMMERCE MADE SIMPLE FOR G10Self enrolment: COMMERCE MADE SIMPLE FOR G10
  • This subject will give you more knowledge in principles of accounts.

    Self enrolment: PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS GRADE TEN TERM ONE
  • THIS COURSE WILL ENABLES LEARNERS TO BE FAMILIAR WITH THE BUSINESS WORLD

    Guest access: INTRODUCTION TO COMMERCESelf enrolment: INTRODUCTION TO COMMERCE
  • Introduction to Commerce attempts to provide simple and easy approach for understanding the basics of Commerce. It primarily covers six pertinent disciplines of commercial studies, namely Accounts, Economics, Human Resource, Statistics, Business Management Concepts and Practices and Business Communication.

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTION TO COMMERCE GRADE 11 AND 12
  • This course introduces you to commerce,its defination,trade and aids to trade,types of retailers.It will also highlight the meaning of production.

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTION TO COMMERCE
  • commerce is the study of trade and aids to trade.

    Self enrolment: COMMERCE
  • This Course will introduce you to the world of using technology in studing Accounts

    Self enrolment: Introduction to Automation in Accounts
  • BUSINESS DOCUMENTS

    to explore various business documents used in both home and foreign trade

    Self enrolment: COMMERCE GRADE
  • Commerce introduces you to the world of business

    Self enrolment: COMMERCE GRADE 10  TERM 1
  • To help learners develop basic business skills in this fast changing commercial world. provide basic skills for sarvival through income generating activities, and to contribute successfully to the development of a better Zambia tomorow. 

    Self enrolment: COMMERCE GRADE 10 TERM ONE
  •  Term 3 Commerce for grade 12s to cover aids to trade

    Self enrolment: COMMERCE GRADE 12 TERM
  • COMMERCE GRADE 10 - 12 (TERM 1s)

    Self enrolment: COMM GRADE 10 - 12 (TERM 1s)
  • TRANSPORT is defined as the geographical change of goods and people

    Self enrolment: TRANSPORT IN COMMERCE G12
  • GRADE 12 GEOGRAPHY TERM 1

    Welcome to Grade 12 Geography term 1. This course comprises topics on Zambia and the Sub- Region. Join us and be part of the passing team
    Self enrolment: GRADE 12 GEOGRAPHY TERM 1
  • This Course you wiil learn about the Forestry in Zambia which deals with types of trees that is  indigenous and exotic. The indigenous trees are widely grown in Zambia in different provinces.Kindly join the course.

    Self enrolment: GEOGRAPHY FOR GRADE 11
  • The aim of this course is to help you:

    • Create an understanding of relationships between man and the environment
    • Develop skills needed to read and interpret maps, charts and diagrams
    • Develop an understanding of the relationships between industrial development and resources that Zambia is endowed with
    Self enrolment: SOCIAL STUDIES GEOGRAPHY
  • HAI! YOU ARE ALL WELCOME TO GEOGRAPHY GRADE 8 TERM ONE, IN THIS COURSE, YOU ARE EXPECTED TO WORK VERY HARD . THERE ARE ACTIVITIES, QUIZES AND YOU ARE FREE TO WORK EITHER ALONE OR IN GROUPS.

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY GRADE 8 TERM ONE
  • In this course you will locate the forests on the map of Zambia, state the importance of forests and classify forests into idegenous and exotic.

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTION TO FORESTRY IN ZAMBIA
  • IN THIS COURSE YOU ARE REQUIRED TO RESEARCH

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY GRADE 9 TERM 1
  • In the first term G.10, the pupils are going to learn more about ways of learning history.

    Self enrolment: Introduction to history G10
  • This course will take you back to how Africans got to know about the use of fire and  iron tools.

    Self enrolment: Grade 10 History
  • In this course you will learn an introduction of History in Africa between 1900 and 2000

    Self enrolment: Grade 10 History Term 1
  • This course looks at the study of the past to understand the present and plan for the future
    Self enrolment: HISTORY GRADE 10 TERM 2
  • This course looks at the study of the past to understand the present and plan for the future
    Self enrolment:  GRADE 10  HISTORY TERM 2
  • In this course, you will learn about the life and ministry of Jesus on earth.

    Self enrolment: Religious Education (2046) Grade 10 Term 1
  • RELIGIOUS STUDIES

    Self enrolment: RELIGIOUS DEPARTMENT
  • This course is intended to introduce the grade 8 learners to Spiritual and Moral Education.

    Self enrolment:  INTRODUCTION TO SPIRITUAL  AND MORAL EDUCATION GRADE 8 TERM 1
  • This course will introducepupils the concepts of GMD and help them to come up with Isometric drawings.

    Self enrolment: GMD
  • our world has became one where computers are used to solve many problems quikly and accuratly. we use calculators to solve arithmetical problems, word processors to check spelling and grammer in text and computer-aided design (C.A.D) programs to do much of our drawing for us. however, the same way that we need to know what +,-,x and / mean when pass that symbol on a calculator, and we need to be to write a text before we can ask a word processor to check it, in the same way we need knowledge and understanding of geometric and engineering drawing before we can use computers to help us with design.

    Self enrolment: Geometrical and Mechanical Drawing
  • Home Economics is a subject dealing with how to run a house well and efficiently. Its a theory and a practical subject which includes needle work, laundry and food & nutrition.
    Self enrolment: HOME ECONOMICS GRADE 8
  • Food is anything thatcan be eaten to nourish the body. Food is a liquid orsolid substance which when eaten and absorbed by the body performs one or more functions.

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTON TO FOOD AND NUTRITION GRADE 10 TERM 3
  • introduction to civic education grade 10
    Self enrolment: civic education grade 10
  • book keeping is the recording of business transactions in a systematic manner,

    Self enrolment: book keeping
  • principles of accounting refers to the broad underlying concepts which guide accountants when preparing financial statements.
    Self enrolment: Principals of Accounts
  • Demostrating an understanding of the theoretical framework of accounting and principles underlying accounting statement, this include evaluating performance and financial position of an organisation
    Self enrolment: PRINCIPLE OFACCOUNTS
  • This course provides the Concept of Accounting and Principles of Accounting, Accounting as a business practice the purpose of Accounting and The Accounting cycle with its diagrammatic representations.Watch principles of accounting video lessons and learn about accounting terms, accounting managements and more. Each lesson offers a short,assignments and tests for self-assessment.

    Self enrolment: Principles of Accounts Grade 10 Term 1
  • This course sets a foundation for students studying ICT/networking. It makes networking as simple as posible to both beginers and those revising. Twenty topics are contained in this couse.

    Self enrolment: Introduction to Internetworking Design and LAN/MAN Administration 1
  • In this course you learn the basics of a computer and its operation.This gives a short descriptive of the computer systems behaviors and how you can get started without any difficulties.

    Self enrolment: COMPUTER BASICS 1
  • Terminologies commonly used in computer studies

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER STUDIES GRADE 8 TERM ONE
  • This will teach you to use Microsoft  Excel

    Self enrolment: Excel
  • Introduction to microsoft word:

    opening a new document, save and closing

    Self enrolment: Information and  Communication Technology
  • This an ICT course in computer studies for G8 term 3.

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTION ICT G8 AN
  • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY is a very good course that deals with the use of computers and other electronic devices to improve on the effeciency of communication, production, management and manufacturing process.

    Self enrolment: INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
  • INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER STUDIES

    This course introduces you to computer studies grade 8

    Self enrolment: COMPUTER STUDIES GRADE 8
  • To introduce pupils to ict on spread sheets and power point
    Self enrolment: GRADE 9 ICT TERM FM
  • ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: computer, radio television, cellular phones networked hardware, software and satelite systems.

    other services include various services and applications associated with video conferencing and distance learning.

    Self enrolment: information and communication technology
  • COMPUTER STUDIES

    An introduction to senior secondary computer studies course. This course covers basic concepts of computer studies, numbers systems, computer peripherals

    Self enrolment: COMPUTER STUDIES
  • This is a Computer Studies Course that introduces Grade 8 students to use the computer and its productivity tools effectively; understand and apply requirements of CS ethics and security; share their knowledge and skills through the internet

    Guest access: GRADE 8 COMPUTER STUDIESSelf enrolment: GRADE 8 COMPUTER STUDIES
  • Having learnt about computer studies in general,  learners should be able to do the following:

    • understand the concept of safety and misuse in the computer laboratory
    • use a computer to do a given task with less difficulties
    • appreciate the use of computers in everyday life
    • communicate using other means of gadgets to interact with other users
    • enables learners acquire entrepreneurship skills for their living
    Self enrolment: Computer Studies
  • Information and Communications plays an important role in our day-to-day's activities. it has become a common practice to find information-based systems in banks,retail store, government agencies, entertainment industry and media houses. To adapt to the ever changing technological world, one needs to be knowledgeable and competent user of computer based technologies.Therefore in this course pupils should be able define a computer, describe the physical parts of a computer etc.

    Self enrolment: COMPUTER STUDIES GRADE 8
  • This course is specially designed for students who have little or no experience using computers. With our small class sizes, plenty of hands-on exercises and encouraging instructors, you will be comfortable using your computer in no time.

    Self enrolment: Basic Computers Studies
  • computer studis is a new subject introduced in schools. In the course introduction to ICT is taught.

    Self enrolment: Computer Studies Grade 8 Term 2
  • This deatils with terminologies in computer studies.

    Types of computers.

    Parts of computers

    Hardware and software

     

    Self enrolment: GRADE: 8 -INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
  • Computing is not about computers anymore. It is about a living We have seen computers move out of giant air-conditioned rooms into closets, then onto desktop, and now into our laps and pockets. Therefore this study will allow us to work with computers in much educative way from which we can develop a skill and earn a living from the knowledge acquired.
    Self enrolment: COMPUTER GRADE 8 TERM 1
  • This is a juniour secondary school subject where computer basics are taught as well as how to handle software productivity tools such as microsoft word and many more. 

    Self enrolment: Computer Studies
  • integrated science

    integrated science is the broader science which looks at physics, chemistry and biology.

    Self enrolment: integrated science
  • In this course learners will be able to be exposed to industrial work. They are courses under this same subject like Bricklaying and plastering, electrical engineering, carpentry and joinery, metal fabrication, graphic communication and Enterprineurship. These courses will provide skills to learners.

    Self enrolment: DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY
  • THIS COURSE GIVES BASIC DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS TO GRADE 8 CLASS

    Self enrolment: BASIC DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY
  • Welcome An Introduction To Design & Technology for 'Grade 8s'

    Self enrolment: Introduction To Design And Technology- G.8


  • WASTING OF MATERIALS

    SAWS

    A saw is a tool consisting of a tough blade, wire, or chain with a hard toothed edge. It is used to cut through material, most often wood. The cut is made by placing the toothed edge against the material and moving it forcefully forth and less forcefully back or continuously forward. This force may be applied by hand, or powered by steam, water, electricity or other power source. An abrasive saw has a powered circular blade designed to cut through metal.

    Contents

    Terminology

    "Kerf" redirects here. For other meanings, see Kerf (disambiguation).

    Diagram showing the teeth of a saw blade when looking front-on. The teeth protrude to the left and right, so that the saw cut (kerf) is wider than the blade width. The term set describes how much the teeth protrude. The kerf may be sometimes be wider than the set, depending on wobble and other factors.

    • Heel: The end closest to the handle.
    • Toe: The end farthest from the handle.
    • Front: The side with the teeth (the "bottom edge").
    • Back: The side opposite the front (the "top edge").
    • Teeth: Small, sharp protrusions along the cutting side of the saw.
    • Gullet: The valley between the points of the teeth.
    • Fleam: The angle of the faces of the teeth relative to a line perpendicular to the face of the saw.
    • Rake: The angle of the front face of the tooth relative to a line perpendicular to the length of the saw. Teeth designed to cut with the grain (ripping) are generally steeper than teeth designed to cut across the grain (crosscutting)
    • Points per inch (25 mm): The most common measurement of the frequency of teeth on a saw blade. It is taken by setting the tip (or point) of one tooth at the zero point on a ruler, and then counting the number of points between the zero mark and the one-inch mark, inclusive (that is, including both the point at the zero mark and any point that lines up precisely with the one-inch mark). There is always one more point per inch than there are teeth per inch (e.g., a saw with 14 points per inch will have 13 teeth per inch, and a saw with 10 points per inch will have 9 teeth per inch). Some saws do not have the same number of teeth per inch throughout their entire length, but the vast majority do. Those with more teeth per inch at the toe are described as having incremental teeth, in order to make starting the saw cut easier.[1]
    • Teeth per inch: An alternative measurement of the frequency of teeth on a saw blade. Usually abbreviated TPI, as in, "A blade consisting of 18TPI." [Compare points per inch.]
    • Kerf: The width of a saw cut, which depends on several factors: the width of the saw blade; the set of the blade's teeth; the amount of wobble created during cutting; and the amount of material pulled out of the sides of the cut. Although the term "kerf" is often used informally, to refer simply to the thickness of the saw blade, or to the width of the set, this can be misleading, because blades with the same thickness and set may create different kerfs. For example, a too-thin blade can cause excessive wobble, creating a wider-than-expected kerf. The kerf created by a given blade can be changed by adjusting the set of its teeth with a tool called a saw tooth setter.
    • Set: The degree to which the teeth are bent out sideways away from the blade, usually in both directions. In most modern serrated saws, the teeth are set, so that the kerf (the width of the cut) will be wider than the blade itself. This allows the blade to move through the cut easily without binding (getting stuck). The set may be different depending on the kind of cut the saw is intended to make. For example, a rip saw has a tooth set that is similar to the angle used on a chisel, so that it rips or tears the material apart. A "flush-cutting saw" has no set on one side, so that the saw can be laid flat on a surface and cut along that surface without scratching it. The set of the blade's teeth can be adjusted with a tool called a saw tooth setter.
    • Abrasive saw: A saw that cuts with an abrasive disc or band, rather than a serrated blade.

    Manufacture of saws by hand

    Until at least the mid-19th century, saws were made laboriously by hand. The teeth were filed out individually, then "set" by striking alternate teeth with a hammer against a "stake" or small anvil. Due to risk of breaking teeth, beginners were given saw set pliers which set even more slowly.[7]

    Pit saws

    Main articles: Whipsaw, Saw pit and Two-man saw

    A pit saw was a two-man rip saw. In parts of early colonial North America, it was one of the principal tools used in shipyards and other industries where water-powered sawmills were not available. It was so-named because it was typically operated over a saw pit, either at ground level or on trestles across which logs that were to be cut into boards by the pit-saw were mounted. The pit saw was "a strong steel cutting-plate, of great breadth, with large teeth, highly polished and thoroughly wrought, some eight or ten feet in length"[8] with either a handle on either end or a frame saw. A pit-saw was also sometimes known as a whipsaw.[9] It took 2-4 people to operate. A "pit-man" stood in the pit, a "top-man" stood outside the pit, and they worked together to make cuts, guide the saw, and raise it.[10] Pit-saw workers were among the most highly paid laborers in early colonial North America.

    Types of saws

    Hand saws

    Rip sawing circa 1425 with a frame or sash saw on trestles rather than over a saw pit

    Hand saws typically have a relatively thick blade to make them stiff enough to cut through material. (The pull stroke also reduces the amount of stiffness required.) Thin-bladed handsaws are made stiff enough either by holding them in tension in a frame, or by backing them with steel or brass (on account of which the latter are called "back saws.") Some examples of hand saws are:

    • Bow saw or Buck saw: a crosscut saw with the thin blade held in tension in a frame;
    • Coping saw: for cutting wood patterns;
    • Crosscut saw: for cutting wood perpendicular to the grain;
    • Dovetail Saw: for cutting intricate joints, mainly found in drawers;
    • Frame saw or "sash saw": In general any saw with a thin blade held in tension by a frame, this term often specifically means the rip saw also called a whipsaw.
    • Fret saw: for cutting intricate wood patterns;
    • Hacksaw: a fine-toothed tempered blade under tension, for cutting metal, bone[citation needed], and other hard materials;
    • Japanese saw or pull saw: a thin-bladed saw that cuts on the pull stroke;
    • Pad saw or "keyhole saw" or "jab saw": a narrow-bladed saw;
    • Plywood saw: a fine-toothed saw (to reduce tearing), for cutting plywood;
    • Rip saw: for cutting wood along the grain;
    • Turning saw: a frame saw with a narrow blade used for cutting curves, larger than a coping saw.
    • Two-man saw :a general term for a large crosscut saw or rip saw for cutting large logs or trees;
    • Veneer saw: a two-edged saw with fine teeth for cutting veneer;
    • Whipsaw or pit saw: a kind of rip saw for cutting logs into lumber;
    • Wire saw: a toothed or coarse cable or wire wrapped around the material and pulled back and forth.

    Back saws

    Main articles: Backsaw and Japanese saw

    "Back saws," so called because they have a thinner blade backed with steel or brass to maintain rigidity, are a subset of hand saws. Back saws have different names depending on the length of the blade. Some examples are:

    Mechanically powered saws

    Circular-blade saws

    Circular wood-cutting saw at Maine State Museum in the capital city of Augusta, Maine

    This particular circular saw, which cut wood into segments to fit a wood-burning kitchen stove, is displayed at the Cole Land Transportation Museum in Bangor, Maine.

    • Circular saw: a saw with a circular blade which spins. Circular saws can be large for use in a mill or hand held up to 24" blades and different designs cut almost any kind of material including wood, stone, brick, plastic, etc.
    • Table saw: a saw with a circular blade rising through a slot in a table. If it has a direct-drive blade small enough to set on a workbench, it is called a "workbench saw." If set on steel legs, it is called a "contractor's saw." A heavier, more precise and powerful version, driven by several belts, with an enclosed base stand, is called a "cabinet saw." A newer version, combining the lighter-weight mechanism of a contractor's saw with the enclosed base stand of a cabinet saw, is called a "hybrid saw."
    • Radial arm saw: a versatile machine, mainly for cross-cutting. The blade is pulled on a guide arm through a piece of wood that is held stationary on the saw's table.
    • Rotary saw or "spiral-cut saw" or "RotoZip": for making accurate cuts, without using a pilot hole, in wallboard, plywood, and other thin materials.
    • Electric miter saw or "chop saw," or "cut-off saw" or "power miter box": for making accurate cross cuts and miter cuts. The basic version has a circular blade fixed at a 90° angle to the vertical. A "compound miter saw" has a blade that can be adjusted to other angles. A "sliding compound miter saw" has a blade that can be pulled through the work, in an action similar to that of a radial-arm saw, which provides more capacity for cutting wider workpieces.
    • Concrete saw: (usually powered by an internal combustion engine and fitted with a Diamond Blade) for cutting concrete or asphalt pavement.
    • Pendulum saw or "swing saw": a saw hung on a swinging arm, for the rough cross cutting of wood in a sawmill and for cutting ice out of a frozen river.
    • Abrasive saw: a circular or reciprocating saw-like tool with an abrasive disc rather than a toothed blade, commonly used for cutting very hard materials. As it does not have regularly shaped edges the abrasive saw is not a saw in technical terms.
    • Hole saw: ring-shaped saw to attach to a power drill, used for cutting a circular hole in material.

    Reciprocating blade saws

    • Jigsaw or "saber saw" (US): narrow-bladed saw, for cutting irregular shapes. (Also an old term for what is now more commonly called a "scroll saw.")
    • Reciprocating saw or "sabre saw" (UK and Australia): a saw with an "in-and-out" or "up-and-down" action similar to a jigsaw, but larger and more powerful, and using a longer stroke with the blade parallel to the barrel. Hand-held versions, sometimes powered by compressed air, are for demolition work or for cutting pipe.
    • Scroll saw: for making intricate curved cuts ("scrolls").
    • Dragsaw: for bucking logs (used before the invention of the chainsaw).
    • Frame saw or sash saw: A thin bladed rip-saw held in tension by a frame used both manually and in sawmills. Some whipsaws are frame saws and some have a heavy blade which does not need a frame called a mulay or muley saw.
    • Sternal saw: for cutting through a patient's sternum during surgery.
    • Ice saw: for ice cutting. Looks like a mulay saw but sharpened as a cross-cut saw.

    Continuous band

    Chainsaws

    Types of blades and blade cuts

    Most blade teeth are made either of tool steel or carbide. Carbide is harder and holds a sharp edge much longer.

    Band saw blade

    A long band welded into a circle, with teeth on one side. Compared to a circular-saw blade, it produces less waste because it is thinner, dissipates heat better because it is longer (so there is more blade to do the cutting, and is usually run at a slower speed.

    Crosscut

    In woodworking, a cut made at (or close to) a right angle to the direction of the wood grain of the workpiece. A crosscut saw is used to make this type of cut.

    Rip cut

    In woodworking, a cut made parallel to the direction of the grain of the workpiece. A rip saw is used to make this type of cut.

    Plytooth blade

    A circular saw blade with many small teeth, designed for cutting plywood with minimal splintering.

    Dado blade

    A special type of circular saw blade used for making wide-grooved cuts in wood so that the edge of another piece of wood will fit into the groove to make a joint. Some dado blades can be adjusted to make different-width grooves. A "stacked" dado blade, consisting of chipper blades between two dado blades, can make different-width grooves by adding or removing chipper blades. An "adjustable" dado blade has a movable locking cam mechanism to adjust the degree to which the blade wobbles sideways, allowing continuously variable groove widths from the lower to upper design limits of the dado.

    Strobe saw blade

    A circular saw blade with special rakers/cutters to easily saw through green or uncured wood that tends to jam other kinds of saw blades. Plane (tool)

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    It has been suggested that Finger plane be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2013.

    A Japanese plane in use

    A hand plane is a tool for shaping wood. When powered by electricity, the tool may be called a planer. Planes are used to flatten, reduce the thickness of, and impart a smooth surface to a rough piece of lumber or timber. Planing is used to produce horizontal, vertical, or inclined flat surfaces on workpieces usually too large for shaping. Special types of planes are designed to cut joints or decorative mouldings.

    Hand planes are generally the combination of a cutting edge, such as a sharpened metal plate, attached to a firm body, that when moved over a wood surface, take up relatively uniform shavings, by nature of the body riding on the 'high spots' in the wood, and also by providing a relatively constant angle to the cutting edge, render the planed surface very smooth. A cutter which extends below the bottom surface, or sole, of the plane slices off shavings of wood. A large, flat sole on a plane guides the cutter to remove only the highest parts of an imperfect surface, until, after several passes, the surface is flat and smooth. When used for flattening, bench planes with longer soles are preferred for boards with longer longitudinal dimensions. A longer sole registers against a greater portion of the board's face or edge surface which leads to a more consistently flat surface or straighter edge. Conversely, using a smaller plane allows for more localized low or high spots to remain.

    Though most planes are pushed across a piece of wood, holding it with one or both hands, Japanese planes are pulled toward the body, not pushed away.

    Woodworking machinery that perform the same function as hand planes include the jointer and the thickness planer, also called a thicknesser. When rough lumber is reduced to dimensional lumber, a large electric motor or internal combustion engine will drive a thickness planer that removes excess wood to create a uniform, smooth surface on all four sides of the lumber and may also plane the edges.

    Contents

    History

    A pair of wooden planes found on board the 16th century carrack Mary Rose.

    Hand planes are ancient, originating thousands of years ago. Early planes were made from wood with a rectangular slot or mortise cut across the center of the body. The cutting blade or iron was held in place with a wooden wedge. The wedge was tapped into the mortise and adjusted with a small mallet, a piece of scrap wood or with the heel of the user's hand. Planes of this type have been found in excavations of old sites as well as drawings of woodworking from medieval Europe and Asia. The earliest known examples of the woodworking plane have been found in Pompeii although other Roman examples have been unearthed in Britain and Germany. The Roman planes resemble modern planes in essential function, most having iron wrapping a wooden core top, bottom, front and rear and an iron blade secured with a wedge. One example found in Cologne has a body made entirely of bronze without a wooden core.[1] A Roman plane iron used for cutting moldings was found in Newstead, England.[2] Histories prior to these examples are not clear although furniture pieces and other woodwork found in Egyptian tombs show surfaces carefully smoothed with some manner of cutting edge or scraping tool. There are suggestions that the earliest planes were simply wooden blocks fastened to the soles of adzes to effect greater control of the cutting action.

    In the mid-1860s, Leonard Bailey began producing a line of cast iron-bodied hand planes, the patents for which were later purchased by Stanley Rule & Level, now Stanley Works. The original Bailey designs were further evolved and added to by Justus Traut and others at Stanley Rule & Level. The Bailey and Bedrock designs became the basis for most modern metal hand plane designs manufactured today. The Bailey design is still manufactured by Stanley Works.

    In 1918 an air-powered handheld planing tool was developed to reduce shipbuilding labor during World War I. The air-driven cutter spun at 8000 to 15000 rpm and allowed one man to do the planing work of fifteen men who used manual tools.[3]

    Modern hand planes are made from wood, ductile iron or bronze which produces a tool that is heavier and will not rust.

    Parts

    Parts of a plane

    Two styles of plane are shown with some parts labeled. The top of the image is a bench plane; the bottom is a block plane.

    A bench plane iron with chipbreaker.

    • A: The mouth is an opening in the bottom of the plane down through which the blade extends, and up through which wood shavings pass.
    • B: The iron is a plate of steel with a sharpened edge which cuts the wood. Some people refer to it as the blade.
    • C: The lever cap holds the blade down firmly to the body of the plane.
    • D: The depth adjustment knob controls how far the blade extends through the mouth.
    • E: The knob is a handle on the front of the plane.
    • F: The chipbreaker or Cap iron serves to make the blade more rigid and to curl and break apart wood shavings as they pass through the mouth.
    • G: The lateral adjustment lever is used to adjust the iron by skewing it so that the depth of cut is uniform across the mouth.
    • H: The tote is a handle on the rear of the plane.(Some aficionados object to the use of the word tote preferring handle).
    • I: The finger rest knob Block planes are held in the palm of the hand while the tip of the user's index finger rests in the indentation on top of the knob. On some planes the knob is used to adjust the size of the mouth by allowing a sliding portion of the sole to be moved back or forward to accomplish this.
    • J: The frog is a sliding iron wedge that holds the plane iron at the proper angle. It slides to adjust the gap between the cutting edge and the front of the mouth. The frog is screwed down to the inside of the sole through two parallel slots and on many planes is only adjustable with a screwdriver when the plane iron is removed. Some planes, such as the Stanley Bedrock line and the bench planes made by Lie-Nielsen and WoodRiver/WoodCraft have a screw mechanism that allows the frog to be adjusted without removing the blade.

    Types

    Modern wooden plane

    A smoothing plane

    Stanley No. 32 transitional jointer plane (26 inches long)

    Stanley No. 55 Combination Plane

    Router plane

    Finger planes, seen in Copenhagen. Note the size.

    Most planes are broadly categorized as either bench planes, block planes, or specialty planes. In modern-day carpentry, electrically powered hand planers (also called hand or handheld power planers or simply power planes) have joined the family.

    Bench planes are characterized by the cutting iron bedded with the bevel facing down and attached to a chipbreaker. Most metal bench planes, and some larger wooden ones, are designed with a rear handle known as a tote. Block planes are characterized by the absence of a chipbreaker and the cutting iron bedded with the bevel up. The block plane is usually a smaller tool that can be held with one hand and is used for general purpose work such as taking down a knot in the wood, smoothing small pieces, chamfering edges, and making the end of a sawed board square and smooth.

    Different types of bench planes are designed to perform different tasks, with the name and size of the plane being defined by the use. Bailey iron bench planes were designated by number respective to the length of the plane. This has carried over through the type, regardless of manufacturer. A No. 1 plane is but little more than five inches long. A typical smoothing plane (approx. nine inches) is usually a No. 4, jack planes at about fourteen inches are No. 5, an eighteen inch foreplane will be a No. 6, and the jointer planes at twenty-two to twenty-four inches in length are No. 7 or 8 respectively. A designation, such as No. 4½ indicates a plane of No. 4 length but slightly wider. A designation, such as 5-1/2 indicates the length of a No. 5 but slightly wider (actually, the width of a No. 6 or a No. 7), while a designation, such as 5-1/4 indicates the length of a No. 5 but slightly narrower (actually, the width of a No. 3). "Bedrock" versions of the above are simply 600 added to the base number (although no "601" was ever produced, such plane is indeed available from specialist dealers; 602 through 608, including all the fractionals, were made).

    A typical order of use in flattening, truing, and smoothing a rough sawn board might be:

    • A scrub plane, which removes large amounts of wood quickly, is typically around 9 inches (230 mm) long, but narrower than a smoothing plane, has an iron with a curved cutting edge, and has a wider mouth opening to accommodate the ejection of thicker shavings/chips.
    • A jack plane is around 14 inches (360 mm) long, continues the job of roughing out, but with more accuracy and flattening capability than the scrub.
    • A jointer plane (including the smaller fore plane) is between 18 to 24 inches (460 to 610 mm) long, and is used for jointing and final flattening out of boards.
    • A smoothing plane, up to 10 inches (250 mm) long, is used to begin preparing the surface for finishing.
    • A polishing plane is a traditional Japanese woodworking tool which takes an even smaller shaving than a western smoothing plane to create an extremely smooth surface. Polishing planes are the same length as western smoothing planes.

    Planes may also be classified by the material of which they are constructed:

    • A wooden plane is entirely wood except for the blade. The iron is held into the plane with a wooden wedge, and is adjusted by striking the plane with a hammer.
    • A transitional plane has a wooden body with a metal casting set in it to hold and adjust the blade.
    • A metal plane is largely constructed of metal, except, perhaps, for the handles.
    • An infill plane has a body of metal filled with very dense and hard wood on which the blade rests and the handles are formed. They are typically of English or Scottish manufacture. They are prized for their ability to smooth difficult grained woods when set very finely.
    • A ""side-escapement plane"" has a tall, narrow, wooden body with an iron held in place by a wedge. They are characterized by the method of shaving ejection. Instead of being expelled from the center of the plane and exiting from the top, these planes have a slit in the side by which the shaving is ejected. On some variations, the slit is accompanied by a circular bevel, cut in the side of the plane which causes the shaving to eject to the side through the open body of the plane.

    Some special types of planes include:

    • The spokeshave, is held horizontally by two symmetrical handles in line with the cutting edge of the iron. It has a very short sole, either flat, concave, or convex and is used for smoothing curved surfaces such as wagon spokes or tool handles.
    • The shoulder plane, is characterized by a cutter that is flush with the edges of the plane, allowing trimming right up to the edge of a workpiece. It is commonly used to clean up dadoes (housings) and tenons for joinery.
    • The moulding plane, which is used to cut mouldings along the edge of a board.
    • The grooving plane which is used to cut grooves along the edge of a board for joining. Grooves are the same as dadoes/housings, but are being distinguished by running with the grain.
    • The rabbet plane, also known as a rebate or openside plane, which cuts rabbets (rebates) i.e. shoulders, or steps.
    • The fillister plane, similar to a rabbet plane, with a fence that registers on the board's edge to cut rabbets with an accurate width.[4]
    • The plow/plough plane, which cuts grooves and dadoes (housings) not in direct contact with the edge of the board.
    • The router plane, which cleans up the bottom of recesses such as shallow mortises, grooves, and dadoes (housings). Router planes come in several sizes and can also be pressed into service to thickness the cheeks of tenons so that they are parallel to the face of the board.
    • The chisel plane, which removes wood up to a perpendicular surface such as from the bottom inside of a box.
    • The finger plane, which is used for smoothing very small pieces such as toy parts, very thin strips of wood, etc. The very small curved bottom varieties are known as violin makers planes and are used in making stringed instruments.
    • The bullnose plane has a very short leading edge to its body, and so can be used in tight spaces; most commonly of the shoulder and rabbet variety. some bullnose planes have a removable toe so that they can pull double duty as a chisel plane.
    • The combination plane, which combines the function of moulding and rabbet planes, which has different cutters and adjustments.
    • The circular or compass plane, which utilizes an adjustment system to control the flex on a steel sheet sole and create a uniform curve. A concave setting permits great control for planing large curves, like table sides or chair arms, and the convex works well for chair arms, legs and backs, and other applications.
    • The toothed plane, which is used for smoothing wood with irregular grain.[5] and for preparing stock for traditional hammer veneering applications.
    • The spar plane, which is used for smoothing round shapes, like boat masts and chair legs.[6]
    • The match plane, which is used for making tongue and groove boards.[7]
    • Hollows and Rounds, which are similar to moulding planes, but lack a specific moulding profile. Instead, they cut either a simple concave or convex shape on the face or edge of a board to create a single element of a complex-profile moulding. They are used in pairs or sets of various sizes to create moulding profile elements such as fillets, coves, bullnoses, thumbnails ovolos, ogees, etc. When making mouldings, hollows and rounds must be used together to create the several shapes of the profile. However, they may be used as a single plane to create a simple decorative cove or round-over on the edge of a board. Many of these holes and rounds can be classified in the category of side-escampement planes.

    Use

    Planing with the grain.

    Planing against the grain.

    Planing wood along its side grain should result in thin shavings rising above the surface of the wood as the edge of the plane iron is pushed forward, leaving a smooth surface, but sometimes splintering occurs. This is largely a matter of cutting with the grain or against the grain respectively, referring to the side grain of the piece of wood being worked.

    The grain direction can be determined by looking at the edge or side of the work piece. Wood fibers can be seen running out to the surface that is being planed. When the fibers meet the work surface it looks like the point of an arrow that indicates the direction. With some very figured and difficult woods, the grain runs in many directions and therefore working against the grain is inevitable. In this case, a very sharp and finely-set blade is required.

    When planing against the grain, the wood fibers are lifted by the plane iron, resulting in a jagged finish, called tearout. Planing against the grain in this manner is sometimes called "traverse" or "transverse" planing.

    Planing the end grain of the board involves different techniques, and frequently different planes designed for working end grain. Block planes and other bevel-up planes are often effective in planing the difficult nature of end grain. These planes are usually designed to use an iron bedded at a "low angle," typically about 12 degrees. Hacksaw

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Typical full-size hacksaw frame, with 12" blade

    This article is about the tool. For other uses, see Hacksaw (disambiguation).

    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2009)

    A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally for cutting metal. They can also cut various other materials, such as plastic and wood; for example, plumbers and electricians often cut plastic pipe and plastic conduit with them. There are hand saw versions and powered versions (power hacksaws). Most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Such hacksaws have a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. The frames may also be adjustable to accommodate blades of different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. Panel hacksaws forgo the frame and instead have a sheet metal body; they can cut into a sheet metal panel further than a frame would allow. These saws are no longer commonly available, but hacksaw blade holders enable standard hacksaw blades to be used similarly to a keyhole saw or pad saw. Power tools including nibblers, jigsaws, and angle grinders fitted with metal-cutting blades and discs are now used for longer cuts in sheet metals.

    On hacksaws, as with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. In normal use, cutting vertically downwards with work held in a bench vice, hacksaw blades should be set to be facing forwards. Some frame saws, including Fret Saws and Piercing Saws, have their blades set to be facing the handle because they are used to cut by being pulled down against a horizontal surface.

    Contents

    Design

    History

    While saws for cutting metal had been in use for many years, significant improvements in longevity and efficiency were made in the 1880s by George N. Clemson, a founder of Clemson Bros., Inc of Middletown, New York, USA,. Clemson conducted tests which involved changing the dimensions, shapes of teeth, styles of set, and variable heat treatments of blades. Clemson claimed enormous improvements to the cutting ability of blades and built a major industrial operation manufacturing hacksaw blades sold under the trade name Star Hack Saw.[1] In 1898, Clemson was granted US Patent 601947, which details various improvements in the hacksaw.[2]

    Blades

    Junior hacksaw

    Blades are available in standardized lengths, usually 10 or 12 inches for a standard hand hacksaw. "Junior" hacksaws are typically 150mm long. Powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades.

    The pitch of the teeth can be anywhere from fourteen to thirty-two teeth per inch (tpi) for a hand blade, with as few as three tpi for a large power hacksaw blade. The blade chosen is based on the thickness of the material being cut, with a minimum of three teeth in the material. As hacksaw teeth are so small, they are set in a "wave" set. As for other saws they are set from side to side to provide a kerf or clearance when sawing, but the set of a hacksaw changes gradually from tooth to tooth in a smooth curve, rather than alternate teeth set left and right.

    Hacksaw blades are normally quite brittle, so care needs to be taken to prevent brittle fracture of the blade. Early blades were of carbon steel, now termed 'low alloy' blades, and were relatively soft and flexible. They avoided breakage, but also wore out rapidly. Except where cost is a particular concern, this type is now obsolete. 'Low alloy' blades are still the only type available for the Junior hacksaw, which limits the usefulness of this otherwise popular saw.

    For several decades now, hacksaw blades have used high speed steel for their teeth, giving greatly improved cutting and tooth life. These blades were first available in the 'All-hard' form which cut accurately but were extremely brittle. This limited their practical use to benchwork on a workpiece that was firmly clamped in a vice. A softer form of high speed steel blade was also available, which wore well and resisted breakage, but was less stiff and so less accurate for precise sawing. Since the 1980s, bi-metal blades have been used to give the advantages of both forms, without risk of breakage. A strip of high speed steel along the tooth edge is electron beam welded to a softer spine. As the price of these has dropped to be comparable with the older blades, their use is now almost universal.

    Hacksaw blade specifications: The most common blade is the 12 inch or 300 mm length. Hacksaw blades have two holes near the ends for mounting them in the saw frame and the 12 inch / 300 mm dimension refers to the center to center distance between these mounting holes.[3]

    12 Inch Blade

    Hole to hole: 11 7/8 inches / 300. mm

    Overall blade length: 12 3/8 inches / 315 mm (not tightly controlled)

    Mounting Hole diameter: 9/64 to 5/32 inch / 3.6 to 4 mm (not tightly controlled)

    Blade Width: 7/16 to 33/64 inch / 11 to 13 mm (not tightly controlled)

    Blade Thickness: 0.020 to 0.027 inches / 0.5 to 0.70 mm (varies with tooth pitch and other factors)

    The kerf produced by the blades is somewhat wider than the blade thickness due to the set of the teeth. It commonly varies between 0.030 and 0.063 inches / 0.75 and 1.6 mm depending on the pitch and set of the teeth.

    The 10 inch blade is also fairly common and all the above dimensions apply except for the following:

    Hole to Hole: 9 7/8 inches / 250 mm

    Overall blade length: 10 3/8 inches / 265 mm (not tightly controlled)

     

    Self enrolment: DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY GRADE 8 TERM THREE
  • Design and Technology exposes learners to the wide range of knowledge ,skills & values in designing, manufacturing and evaluation.

    Self enrolment: DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY GRADE 10 TERM ONE
  • This course  covers operation and trouble shooting of electrical sytems on a motor vechicle

    Self enrolment: automotive -electrical
  • Every school workshop should be adequately equipped with a reasonable quantity and variety of tools and equipment for work to be done efficiently. it is necessary for you to be not only familiar with the names of the tools but also to identify and select the right tool for the job in hand, and use it safely and correctly. To make it easier to understand the correct applications of the various tools, they are grouped into classes as follows: holdin and supporting tools, geometrical topercussion tools; percussion tools; impelling tools; boring tools; cutting tools; etc.

    This course will therefore look at the various types of woodworking tools; their names, parts and functions. 

    Self enrolment: WOOD WORK GRADE 11 TERM 3
  • This topic will define a workshop/workroom, safety and good house keeping, it will  will further list the general safety and safety in the machine room.

    Self enrolment: INTRODUCTION TO A WORKROOM AND SAFETY
  • THE IMPORTANCE OF DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY AND ITS PRODUCTS

    Self enrolment: DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY GRADE 8 TERM 1
  • Course objectives:

    • to introduce students to the basic mechanical properties of materials
    • to give students an understanding of the relation of the microstructure and mechanical properties
    • to expose students to basic processing techniques for controlling shape and properties in the final product
    • to give students the background required to pursue further studies in materials processing and related engineering fields 

    Self enrolment: Materials Science
  • This chapter will look at the different materials used in Design and Technology. You will be able to learn about new and interesting materials and their properties and uses STUDY WELL
    Self enrolment: MATERIALS IN DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY
  • This course will help students to demonstrate knowledge of wood, its composition, and its advantages as an engineering material, its applications and processes involved in producing a finished product

    Self enrolment: Materials and processes (Wood)
  • Enjoy thermal fluids

    Self enrolment: heat transfer
  • In this course learners are expected to know and understand the elements ot the rudiments and theory of music.

    Self enrolment: GRADE 8 MUSIC